The Anunnaki (also spelled Anunna, Anunnaku, Ananaki and various spellings) are a group of Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian deities. Zecharia Sitchin was an Azerbaijani-born American novelist who promoted a theory for human origins, including ancient astronauts in his works. Sitchin claims that the Anunnaki, a species of extraterrestrials from a planet beyond Neptune known as Nibiru, were responsible for the establishment of Sumerian society.
He thought that Nibiru, a fictional planet in the Solar System, was in an extended elliptical orbit and that Sumerian mythology reflected this belief. Sitchin\’s works have been translated into over 25 languages and have sold millions of copies worldwide.
Scientists and academics reject Sitchin\’s beliefs, dismissing them as pseudohistory and pseudoscience. Sitchin\’s work was chastised for its poor methodology, mistranslations of ancient writings, and false astrological and scientific claims. Sitchin advocated hypotheses in which alien occurrences supposedly played a substantial part in early human history, similar to earlier authors such as Immanuel Velikovsky and Erich von Däniken. According to Sitchin\’s interpretation of Mesopotamian imagery and symbolism, which he presented in his 1976 book “The 12th Planet” and its successors, there is an unknown planet beyond Neptune that orbits the inner solar system in a long elliptical orbit at every 3,600 years. Nibiru is the name of this planet.
According to Sitchin, Nibiru (whose name was changed to MARDUK in the original legends by a Babylonian ruler of the same name in an attempt to co-opt creation for himself, causing some confusion among readers) catastrophically collided with Tiamat (a goddess in the Myth of Babylonian creation the Enûma Eli), which he believes to have been located between Mars and Jupiter. Planet Earth, the asteroid belt and comets are believed to have formed as a result of this collision.
According to Sitchin, Tiamat split in half after being hit by one of Nibiru\’s moons, and then Nibiru itself impacted the fractured fragments in a subsequent pass, causing half of Tiamat to become the asteroid belt. The second half was forced into a new orbit by one of Nibiru\’s moons and created today\’s planet Earth.
According to Sitchin, Nibiru (nicknamed the “twelfth planet” because the conception given by the Solar System gods to the Sumerians counted all eight planets plus Pluto, the Sun, and the Moon) was home to a technologically advanced extraterrestrial similar to the Sun. human. race known as the Anunnaki in Sumerian myth, who Sitchin claims are known in Genesis as the Nephilim. They developed when Nibiru entered the solar system and first landed on Earth 450,000 years ago, hunting for minerals, mainly gold, that they discovered and mined in Africa, he said.
According to Sitchin, these “gods” were members of the mission to colonize the planet Nibiru to Earth. Enki suggested that primitive workers (Homo sapiens) were created as slaves by crossing extraterrestrial genes with those of Homo erectus to relieve the Anunnaki, who mutinied because of their working conditions, and that they be replaced in the gold mines by crossing extraterrestrial genes with those of Homo erectus.
According to Sitchin, ancient writings claim that these “gods” guided the establishment of human civilization in Sumer, Mesopotamia and that human royalty was established to serve as an intermediary between humans and the Anunnaki (forming the idea of the “divine right of kings”. ”). Sitchin argues that the “bad wind” mentioned in Lament for Ur, which destroyed Ur around 2000 BC, is the fallout from nuclear weapons used during a conflict between alien groups. According to Sitchin, the year is 2024 BC.
Sitchin claims that his findings are in agreement with many biblical scriptures and that the biblical texts are derived from Sumerian literature. Sitchin\’s work has been particularly criticized in three categories: 1) translations and interpretations of ancient texts, 2) astronomical and scientific observations, and 3) myth literalism. Translations and interpretations are two different things. Only professionals could read Sumerian when Sitchin wrote his works, but materials like the 2006 book Sumerian Lexicon made the language more accessible to non-experts. Michael S. Heiser, an expert on ancient languages, claims to have discovered several flaws in Sitchin\’s translations and challenges interested parties to use this book to verify their accuracy.
Professor Ronald H. Fritze, author of “Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science, and Pseudo-religions,” cites Sitchin\’s claim that the Sumerian sign Din-Gir means “the pure of flaming rockets,” and says that “Sitchin\’s attribution of meanings to ancient words is biased and often tense”. “When opponents investigated Sitchin\’s sources, they found that he often quotes out of context or truncates his statements in a way that distorts the facts to establish his claims,” Fritze said of Sitchin\’s methods. Anything is given selectively, and evidence that contradicts it is omitted.”
Sitchin\’s arguments are based on his own readings of pre-Nubian and Sumerian writings, as well as the VA 243 seal. Sitchin said that these ancient civilizations were aware of a twelfth planet, but only knew of five. Hundreds of Sumerian astrological seals and calendars have been deciphered and documented, with each seal containing a total of five planets. Sitchin recognizes 12 points on the VA Seal 243 as planets. The VA 243 seal must be a communication from a lord to a servant, as it reads “You are his Servant” when translated. The so-called sun in Seal VA 243, according to semiologist Michael S. Heiser, is a star, not the Sumerian sign for the sun, and the points are also stars. The sign on the VA 243 seal bears little relation to the hundreds of Sumerian sun emblems that have been discovered. Roger W. Wescott, professor of anthropology and linguistics at Drew University in Madison, New Jersey, criticized Sitchin\’s amateurism regarding the dominance of the Sumerian language in a 1979 review of The Twelfth Planet:
Sitchin\’s linguistics, like his anthropology, biology, and astronomy, appears to be incompetent. For example, he states on page 370 that “all ancient languages… including early Chinese… were derived from one primordial source – Sumerian.”
Sumerian is, of course, the virtual paradigm of what linguistic taxonomists call an isolated language, or a language that does not belong to any of the known language groups or has obvious cognition with any other language.
Even if Sitchin is referring to written rather than spoken language, his claim is unlikely to be defended convincingly given that Sumerian ideograms were preceded by European signatories such as Azilian and Tartarian, as well as a variety of systems of script-like notation between the Nile and Indus Rivers. Literature composed in the Sumerian language during the Middle Bronze Age is known as Sumerian literature. Most Sumerian literature has been preserved through Assyrian or Babylonian copies. The Sumerians established the oldest writing system, evolving Sumerian cuneiform writing from earlier proto-writing systems around the 30th century.
Around the 27th century BC, the first written texts appear. Even after the spoken language disappeared from the population, the Sumerian language continued in official and literary use in the Akkadian and Babylonian empires; literacy was widespread, and the Sumerian books that students copied profoundly affected later Babylonian literature. Sumerian literature was not transmitted to us directly, but was rediscovered through archaeology. Despite this, the Akkadians and Babylonians drew heavily on Sumerian literary traditions and carried them throughout the Middle East, influencing much of subsequent literature, including the Bible. Sitchin was born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, on January 11, 1920, and died on October 9, 2010, aged 90. Sumerian literature was not transmitted directly to us, but was rediscovered through archaeology. Despite this, the Akkadians and Babylonians drew heavily on Sumerian literary traditions and carried them throughout the Middle East, influencing much of subsequent literature, including the Bible. Sitchin was born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, on January 11, 1920, and died on October 9, 2010, aged 90. Sumerian literature was not transmitted to us directly, but was rediscovered through archaeology. Despite this, the Akkadians and Babylonians drew heavily on Sumerian literary traditions and carried them throughout the Middle East, influencing much of subsequent literature, including the Bible. Sitchin was born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, on January 11, 1920, and died on October 9, 2010, aged 90.